Diabetes is a chronic or long-term illness characterized by increased blood sugar levels (glucose) up to a normal value. There are two main types of diabetes, namely type 1 diabetes and type 2.
Risk Factors for Diabetes
Risk factors of type 1 diabetes, among others:
- Family history or hereditary factors, that is, when a person will be more likely to be exposed to type 1 diabetes if a family member has the same disease, because it relates to a specific gene.
- The geographical factors, people living in distant areas of the equator, such as in Finland and Sardinia, are at risk of being affected by type 1 diabetes. This is due to lack of vitamin D that can be obtained from sunlight, thereby triggering autoimmune diseases.
- Age factor. The disease is most widely detected in children aged 4-7 years, then in children aged 10-14 years.
- Other trigger factors, such as consuming cow's milk at premature age, water containing sodium nitrate, cereal and gluten before the age of 4 months or after 7 months, have a mother with a history of preeclampsia, and suffer from jaundice at birth.
Risk factors of type 2 diabetes, among others:
- Excessive weight or obesity.
- High belly fat distribution.
- Lifestyle is inactive and rarely activity or exercising.
- History of type 2 diabetes in the family.
- Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian-American races, have higher number of numbers compared to white races.
- The age is over 45 years old, although it is not possible to close the possibility of age 45 years.
- Prediabetic conditions, i.e. when blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
- History of diabetes while pregnant.
- Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, which are characterized by irregular menstruation, excessive hair growth, and obesity.
Causes of Diabetes
Diabetes is caused by the presence of disorders in the body, so that the body is unable to use blood glucose into the cells, so that glucose accumulates in the blood. In type 1 diabetes, this disorder is caused by the pancreas unable to produce certain hormones. While in type 2 diabetes, this disorder occurs as a result of ineffective body use of certain hormones or deficiencies of certain hormones relative to blood glucose levels. This high glucose level can damage the small blood vessels in the kidneys, heart, eyes, and nervous system, resulting in a wide range of complications.
Some of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include:
- Often feel thirsty.
- The frequency of urination increases, especially at night.
- Persistent hunger.
- Weight loss with no obvious cause.
- Limden and feel tired.
- Blurred view.
- The wounds were long healed.
- Often have infections of the skin, urinary tract, gums, or vagina.
The doctor will diagnose diabetes with a person by conducting medical interviews, physical examinations, and supporting examinations such as blood and urine examinations.
Both type 1 and 2 diabetes can cause complications in the form of retinal eye damage, nerve damage, coronary stroke and cardiac diseases, kidney damage, sexual dysfunction, miscarriage, or dead baby birth from diabetic mothers.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes, among others:
- Certain hormones to control blood glucose. The administration of this hormone by injected in the coating under the skin about 3-4 times a day according to the recommended dose of the doctor.
- Healthy diet and regular exercise to help control blood glucose levels.
- Taking care of feet and regular eye-checking to prevent further complications.
Treatment of type 2 diabetes, among others:
- Healthy lifestyle changes include:
- Avoid high-glucose or high-fatty foods.
- Increase foods high in fiber.
- Do sports regularly, at least 3 hours each week.
- Lowering and maintaining weight remains ideal.
- Avoiding or quitting smoking.
- Avoid or stop consuming alcoholic beverages.
- Maintain foot health and prevent injured feet.
- Check your eye health condition regularly.
- Isolation at home from Corona Virus (Covid 19),
- Heart Attack
- Hemolytic Anemia
- Coronary Heart Disease
- Cause of Stroke