Heart attack

Definition of a Heart Attack

Definition of a Heart Attack

Acute coronary syndrome or heart attack is a serious heart disorder when the heart muscle does not get blood flow. This condition will interfere with the functioning of the heart to drain blood throughout the body. In the world of medicine, heart attack is also referred to as myocardial infarction.

Heart attack occurs due to the blood flow to the heart muscle. The main cause of this condition is coronary heart disease, which is the blood vessel that supplies blood to the heart (coronary blood vessel), due to the cholesterol deposits that make up the plaque on the wall of the blood vessel.

This condition is exacerbated by the formation of blood clots, which can clog the total blood vessels and cause a heart attack.

Heart Attack Symptoms

There are some symptoms that heart attack sufferers can feel, among others:
  • Chest Pain
  • Shortness of breath or heavy breath
  • Dizziness
  • Restless
  • Cold Sweat
However, patients with cardiac arrest are not experiencing symptoms and are immediately experiencing sudden cardiac arrest.
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Cardiac Arrest Treatment

A heart attack is an emergency condition that needs to be addressed ASAP. Therefore, immediately go to the hospital if experiencing symptoms of heart attack.
Medication provided by the doctor can be a medication or a heart ring installation. The treatment method depends on the direction of heart attack and the time of complaint.

Complications of cardiac arrest

Severe or late cardiac arrest can lead to complications resulting in death. These complications include:
  • Arrhythmias
  • Heart failure
  • Cardiogenic shock
  • Torn Heart

Cardiac Arrest Prevention

Heart attacks can be prevented by doing a healthy lifestyle, such as:
  • Increase consumption of unsaturated fats and fibers
  • Removes fat that accumulates in the abdomen and other body parts
  • Treating Diabetes and hypertension
  • Exercise regularly
  • Quit
  • Avoiding alcoholic beverages
  • Manage Stress Well

Heart Attack Symptoms

Cardiac arrest can occur suddenly with some of the following symptoms:
  • Chest pain such as depressed or overt. These symptoms can spread to the neck, jaw, arm, or back area.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Cold Sweat.
  • Dizziness.
  • Indigestion, such as nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain.
  • Feeling very anxious and anxious.
  • Decreased consciousness.
However, cardiac arrest does not necessarily arise suddenly. Sometimes, some days or weeks in advance, sufferers have experienced chest pain (angina) that appears when the sufferer activities and subside at rest. Heart attack sufferers can also experience no symptoms at all, especially in diabetics, women, and elderly.

Causes of a Heart Attack

Cardiac arrest occurs because the blood supply to the heart muscle is disturbed. The heart constantly requires oxygen-containing blood supply, as well as other organs and tissues in the body.

If the heart does not get enough blood supply, the heart muscles will be damaged and eventually the heart can not drain blood throughout the body.

Below is the cause of a heart attack:

Coronary heart disease

Coronary heart disease is the main cause of heart attack. Coronary heart disease is a condition in which one or more blood vessels that provide blood supply to the heart (coronary blood vessels), clogged by the buildup of cholesterol plaque (atherosclerosis) and blood clots.

Abuse of NAPZA

NAPZA, like cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine, may cause narrowing of coronary arteries to trigger heart attacks.

Lack of oxygen in the blood (hypoxia)

Oxygen levels in the blood can be decreased due to carbon monoxide poisoning or lung function damage. Consequently, the heart muscle will lack oxygen and a heart attack.

Risk Factors

Coronary heart disease is the main cause of heart attack. There are several risky conditions that create fat-filling and narrowing of blood vessels (atherosclerosis) in coronary heart disease, among them:
  • Elderly (males aged 45 years old or above or females 55 years old and above)
  • Infrequent exercise
  • Smoking
  • Suffering from hypertension
  • Suffer from high cholesterol or high triglycerides
  • Experiencing diabetes
  • Experiencing obesity
  • Experiencing stress
  • Have a family member who has experienced a heart attack
In addition, the risk of heart attack is also higher in people suffering from autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and women with preeclampsia while pregnant.

Diagnosis of Heart Attack

People experiencing heart attack symptoms need to be taken immediately to the nearest IGD hospital to get the treatment. IGD doctors will ensure diagnosis and early treatment as soon as possible. There are several tests that doctors will do to ensure a heart attack, among others:

Cardiac record screening or ECG is performed to view the electrical activity of the heart.
  • Blood test
This test aims to examine the presence of protein marker of heart attack and know how severe heart damage.
Chest x-rays are performed to find out other causes of symptoms, such as a fluid-flooded lung (pulmonary edema).
  • Coronary angiography or cardiac catheterization
Cardiac catheterization aims to find out if there is any blockage or narrowing of the coronary artery, and determine the location of the blockage or narrowing.

Some other examinations are performed to assess the ability of the heart, after the condition of the sufferer has stabilized, among others:
Cardiac ULTRASOUND examination or echocardiography is performed to determine the location of damage to the heart and its influence on cardiac function.
Both of these screening procedures can be done to examine the disturbance of the heart and to see damage occurring due to heart attack.
  • Treadmill ECG
This test is done a few days or weeks after a heart attack occurs, to measure the working response of the heart and blood vessels when activity.

Heart attack treatment

After the sufferer has a heart attack, the heart muscle tissue can lose oxygen and eventually damage and die. The necessary action to prevent continued heart damage is to restore blood flow immediately, either by medication or surgery.


The following are medications that will be administered to handle cardiac arrest.
  • Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin and clopidogrel, to prevent blood clots, so that blood can still flow through blood vessels that undergo narrowing.
  • Blood vessel smelbar drugs, such as nitroglycerin, to dilate blood vessels thereby increasing blood flow to the heart.
  • Painkillers, such as morphine, to relieve sufferers ' pain.
  • Blood clot crusher drugs, such as streptokinase, to help dissolve blood clots that prevent blood flow to the heart muscle.
  • Anticoagulant drugs, such as enoxaparin, to prevent blood clotting occur again.
  • Cholesterol medications, e.g. atorvastatin, to lower cholestroller levels.
  • Hypertensive drugs type ACE inhibitors, e.g. ramipril, to dilate blood vessels and lower blood pressure, thereby reducing the heart burden.
  • The drug is a type of hypertensive beta inhibitory, e.g. bisoprolol, to lower heart rate and reduce blood pressure, thereby easing the work of the heart.


The following are the operating procedures that may be necessary to handle cardiac arrest:

Installation of a Heart ring (stent) or coronary angioplasty

In this procedure, a catheter with a balloon at the tip is inserted into a large vein in the groin or arm. Then the catheter will be directed to the narrowed portion of the veins.

After that, the balloon will be developed to open the blood vessel. The doctor can then enter the ring or stent to keep the blood vessels open for a long time.

Cardiac bypass surgery or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

Cardiac bypass surgery is performed when a lot of coronary artery obstruction occurs or when the coronary artery forms abnormal. CABG is done by creating new blood vessels, which are taken from other blood vessels in the limbs, as an alternative pathway to blocked blood flow.

If heart function does not also return to normal with the above treatment, to cause heart failure, the cardiologist can recommend a heart transplant, which is replacing the heart of the person who has been damaged with a donor heart.

The heart of a healthy donor is usually taken from a donor, a deceased person, with prior approval to donate an organ, both from the person himself and his or her family.

Recovery after experiencing heart attack

A cardiac rehabilitation Program will begin since the sufferer is in the hospital, up to several weeks or months after the sufferer goes home. The main goal of this rehabilitation is to restore the patient's physical fitness to continue daily activities, as well as to reduce the risk of complications and back heart attacks.

This cardiac rehabilitation Program consists of several types of aerobic exercise, such as cycling, jogging, and swimming. To find out other cardiac rehabilitation programs, patients can inquire directly with the doctor.

When at home, people are advised to do light sports, such as walking close and heaving stairs. Furthermore, patients can gradually increase their physical activity.

In addition to rehabilitation, the following are the things that people need to consider when undergoing recovery from heart attack:


Intercourse can be done after the sufferer feels healthy, usually 4-6 weeks after treatment. Intercourse does not make a person risky to experience repeated cardiac arrest.

Although it does not trigger a heart attack, it is worth noting that men are at risk of impotence after a heart attack, due to stress and anxiety, as well as side effects of drugs consumed.

Mental disorders

After returning home from the hospital, the sufferer can feel anxious, afraid, or traumatized by a heart attack. It can affect the speed of recovery. Therefore, people need to consult with psychiatrists to get the treatment of mental disorders.

Back to work and drive

This type of work and health condition is very influential to determine when sufferers can get back to work. The sufferer may be allowed to go back to work after 2 weeks, or instead be arranged to change the type of work.

Discuss with the doctor about when the time is right to get back to work. Also ask the doctor when you are allowed to return to drive. Usually, sufferers can return to drive after 1-6 weeks.

Complications of a Heart Attack

A heart attack can lead to varying complications, ranging from mild to one that can lead to death. The following are some of the possible complications of heart attack sufferers:

  • Arrhythmias

Heart attack can damage the heart muscle and interfere with electrical signal that serves to control heart rate, so it may be arrhythmia. Arrhythmia is a condition in which the heart beats abnormally, whether it is too slow, fast, or irregular.

  • Heart failure

Heart attack can trigger heart failure. This condition makes the heart can not effectively pump blood throughout the body. The symptoms are breathlessness, fast feeling tired, and swelling of the limbs.

  • Cardiogenic shock

Cardiogenic shock occurs when blood flow throughout the body is greatly reduced so that the body's organs do not function properly. This condition is similar to heart failure, but more dangerous. Emerging symptoms include pale skin and shortness of breath.

  • Torn Heart

The Robeknya heart muscle or heart valve due to a heart attack is very rare, but very dangerous. These complications can appear approximately 1-5 days after a heart attack.

Prevention of Heart Attack

Heart attacks can be prevented by applying a healthy lifestyle. The ways that can be done include:

  • Increase consumption of unsaturated fats and fibers

Foods that are good for heart health include foods high in unsaturated fats, such as fish, avocado, or whole grains; and high-fibre foods, such as brown rice, whole grain, or vegetables.

  • Reduce consumption of sugar and salt

The recommended consumption of salts per day is a maximum of one teaspoon. While sugar consumption per day, a maximum of 6-9 teaspoons.

  • Treating Diabetes and hypertension

By controlling blood sugar and blood pressure levels, the risk of coronary heart disease is the main cause of heart attack is also reduced.

  • Quit

Smoking participates in the process of atherosclerosis in the blood vessels.

  • Exercise regularly

Regular exercise can maintain cardiovascular health, as well as treating diabetes and hypertension.

Not to abuse NAPZA

Methtamine and cocaine can narrow the heart's blood vessels, resulting in a heart attack.

Managing Stress

Learn techniques for controlling stress, such as muscle relaxation techniques and respiratory engineering. If necessary, consult a psychiatrist to cope with stress, as stress is one of the risk factors of heart attack.

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