Definition of hypertension
Hypertension is another name of high blood pressure. This condition can cause severe health complications and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and sometimes death.
Blood pressure is the strength given by blood circulation to the artery walls of the body, the main blood vessels in the body. This pressure depends on vascular resistance and how hard the heart works. The more blood is pumped the heart and the narrower the arteries, the higher the blood pressure.
Hypertension can be known by diligently checking the blood pressure. For adults, a minimum of blood is checked every five years.
Blood pressure results are written in two numbers. The first number (systolic) represents the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart contracts or beats. The second number (diastolic) represents the pressure inside the blood vessel when the heart rests between the heartbeat.
One can be said to experience hypertension when measured on two different days, systolic blood pressure readings in both days is greater than 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure readings in both days is greater than 90 mmHg.
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Hypertension Risk Factors
As we age, the likelihood of developing hypertension will increase. Here are the trigger factors that can affect the increased risk of hypertension:
- Aged over 65 years old.
- Consume a lot of salt.
- Have a family with hypertension.
- Eat less fruit and vegetables.
- Rarely exercise.
- Drink too much coffee (or other beverages containing caffeine).
- Consume too much liquor.
The risk of hypertension can be prevented by consuming foods with good nutritional content and change the lifestyle to be healthier.
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Causes of hypertension
There are two types of high blood pressure, namely primary hypertension and secondary hypertension. The following causes each of the two types of hypertension:
1. Primary hypertension
In most adults the cause of this high blood pressure is often unknown. Primary hypertension tends to develop gradually over the years.
2. Secondary hypertension
Some people have high blood pressure because they have underlying health conditions. Secondary hypertension tends to appear suddenly and cause blood pressure to be higher than primary hypertension.
- Various conditions and medications that can cause secondary hypertension include:
- Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
- Kidney problems.
- Adrenal gland tumors.
- Thyroid problems.
- Congenital defects in blood vessels.
- Medications, such as birth control pills, flu medication, decongestants, painkillers are sold freely.
- Illegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamine.
Symptoms of hypertension
A person with hypertension will experience some of the symptoms that arise. Symptoms arising from hypertension, among others:
In order to measure blood pressure, a doctor or expert will usually apply an inflatable arm cuff around the arm and measure blood pressure using a pressure gauge.
Blood pressure measuring results are divided into four general categories:
- Normal blood pressure, which is below 120/80 mmHg.
- High blood pressure, when systolic pressure is in the range of 120-129 mmHg and diastolic pressure is under 80 mmHg.
- Stage 1 hypertension, when systolic pressure is in the range of 130-139 mmHg and diastolic pressure ranges from 80-89 mmHg.
- Hypertension Stage 2. This is a more severe hypertensive condition. Phase 2 hypertension is when the systolic pressure 140 mmHg or higher or diastolic pressure 90 mmHg or higher.
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For some hypertension, drug consumption should be done for life to regulate blood pressure. However, if the blood pressure is already in control through lifestyle changes, the decrease in drug dose or consumption may be discontinued. The prescribed dose is important to note, because the range is adjusted to the level of blood pressure. In addition, the medicines that are administered should also be considered what are the effects and adverse reactions arising in the body of the sufferer.
Medicines commonly given to those with hypertension, among others:
- The drug to remove excess salts and fluids in the body through urine. Hypertension makes the patient susceptible to high levels of salt in the body, for that use of the drug is needed as part of the treatment.
- The drug to dilate blood vessels, so that blood pressure can fall. Hypertension makes the patient susceptible to obstruction of blood vessels.
- The drug works to slow the heartbeat and dilate the vessels. The purpose of using this drug is to lower blood pressure in hypertension.
- Blood pressure lowering drugs that serve to make the walls of blood vessels more relaxed.
- The drug renin inhibitors that have the main function of the drug to inhibit the work of enzymes that serve to raise blood pressure and produced by the kidneys. If the renin works excessively, blood pressure will rise uncontrollably.
In addition to drug consumption, hypertension treatment can also be done through relaxation therapy, such as meditation therapy or yoga therapy. The therapy aims to control stress and provide relaxation impacts for hypertension. Treatment of hypertension will also not go smoothly if not accompanied by lifestyle changes. Live a healthy diet and live, and avoid excessive consumption of caffeine and salt.
There are various precautions that can be done against hypertensive diseases, such as:
- Eating healthy foods.
- Reduce salt consumption should not be excessive.
- Reduce excessive consumption of caffeine such as tea and coffee.
- Exercise regularly.
- Lose weight, if needed.
- Reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages.
- Avoid consumption of sparkling beverages.
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When to go to a doctor?
Contact your doctor immediately if you feel the above symptoms. Proper handling can minimize impact, so the treatment can be done faster. To perform the examination, you can immediately make an appointment with a doctor in the hospital of your choice.
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