Definition of Pneumonia
Pneumonia is a condition where a person corrects an infection that occurs in the air sacs in the person's lungs. Infection caused by pneumonia can occur on one side of the lungs or in between. The infected air sac will be filled with fluid or pus (purulent phlegm). Viral infections, bacteria, or fungi are the main causes of pneumonia. Pneumonia is better known as a wet lung in Indonesia.
This disease can not only affect adults, can also occur in children, to newborns.
Causes and Risk Factors for Pneumonia
The causes of pneumonia vary, but based on the population and place of spread, pneumonia can be divided into two, namely community pneumonia that spreads occur in the community (public environment) and pneumonia that is transmitted in hospitals. Organisms that can cause pneumonia are transmitted in a different environment from the hospital, which is associated with pneumonia that is transmitted in hospitals more difficult to do.
- Examples of life that causes pneumonia that are transmitted in public places include:
- Bacteria, the most common is Streptococcus pneumoniae.
- The organism that secretes bacteria, Mycoplasma pneumonia.
- Mushrooms, usually fungus will attack people with immune system disorders.
Although it can happen to anyone, some people are more susceptible to pneumonia, such as:
- Children aged 2 years and under 2 years.
- Adults over 65 years.
- Hospitalized for a long time.
- Be treated in the ICU and use a ventilator (breathing apparatus).
- Have chronic lung disease or heart disease.
- People who have low immunity (such as people with HIV) or people who take drugs that suppress the immune system, and are on a chemotherapy course.
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Symptoms of Pneumonia
Indications and also mild symptoms of pneumonia generally resemble flu symptoms, such as fever and cough. These symptoms have a longer duration when compared to the common cold. If left unchecked and not treated, severe symptoms can occur, such as:
- Chest pain when breathing or coughing.
- Cough with phlegm.
- Easily tired.
- Fever and chills.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Hard to breathe.
- Disorders of consciousness (especially in people aged> 65 years).
- People who are> 65 years old and have immune system disorders generally experience hypothermia.
In children and infants, symptoms usually appear in the form of high fever, the child always seems tired, does not want to eat, productive cough, and shortness of breath, so that the child's breathing becomes fast.
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Diganosis of pneumonia can be done by history taking, physical examination, and also supporting examination. On history taking and physical examination, the doctor looks for signs and symptoms, then the examination of breath sounds usually found abnormalities. The most frequently performed investigation is through imaging, which is a chest x-ray.
On the chest x-ray, the doctor looks at the location of the infection that occurred. In addition, laboratory blood tests are performed to find out what organisms are causing the infection.
Complications of pneumonia
Complications of pneumonia are more common in young children, the elderly and those who already have previous health conditions, such as diabetes. Possible complications of pneumonia include:
- Pleurisy, a condition in which a thin layer between the lungs and ribs (pleura) is inflamed, which can cause respiratory failure.
- Ribs (pleura) are inflamed, which can cause respiratory failure.
- Lung abscess, a rare complication that is mostly found in people with serious pre-existing illnesses or who have a history of severe alcohol abuse.
- Blood poisoning (sepsis), also a rare complication but has serious consequences.
Treatment for pneumonia
Treatment and treatment for pneumonia cases is to overcome infections that occur and provide supportive therapy. The doctor will give antibiotics that must be consumed until they run out if the infection is caused by bacteria. While supportive therapy can be given in the form of:
- Fever-lowering medication if a person has a high fever and makes the activity disturbed.
- Cough medicine to reduce the frequency of coughing and thawing phlegm that cannot get out.
The doctor also recommends that a person is hospitalized, if some of these conditions occur:
- > 65 years old.
- Has a disturbance of consciousness.
- Having poor kidney function.
- Very low blood pressure (<90 / <60 mmHg).
- Very fast breathing (at devassa> 30 x / minute).
- Body temperature is below normal.
- Pulse <50x / minute or> 100x / minute.
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Prevention of Pneumonia
- Pneumonia can be prevented through several efforts, namely:
- Have good personal hygiene.
- Do not smoke.
- Maintain good body immunity by eating healthy foods and exercising diligently.
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs that causes dysfunction of the lungs. Symptoms caused by pneumonia are usually fever, cough, and shortness of breath. This pneumonia can be caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi. Corona virus is a virus that can cause pneumonia, so pneumonia due to corona virus will also cause complaints such as fever, cough and shortness of breath. Pneumonia caused by bacteria usually causes a fever that is not too high and a cough that produces a lot of phlegm. While pneumonia due to corona more often causes high fever and dry cough.
When to see a doctor?
If you experience the above symptoms, immediately see a doctor to get further treatment. Proper handling can minimize the effects, so treatment can be done more quickly. To conduct an examination, you can immediately make an appointment with a doctor at the hospital.
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